The Enzo Hierarchy File - Explanation and Usage¶
The Enzo Hierarchy file is a representation of the internal memory state of the entire hierarchy of grids. As such, its format – while somewhat obtuse at first – reflects that context. Each grid entry has a set number of fields that describe its position in space, as well as the fields that are affiliated with that grid:
Note: We are in the process of transitioning to an HDF5-formatted Hierarchy File.
Grid = 1 Task = 4 GridRank = 3 GridDimension = 38 22 22 GridStartIndex = 3 3 3 GridEndIndex = 34 18 18 GridLeftEdge = 0 0 0 GridRightEdge = 1 0.5 0.5 Time = 646.75066015177 SubgridsAreStatic = 0 NumberOfBaryonFields = 8 FieldType = 0 1 4 5 6 19 20 21 BaryonFileName = ./RD0005/RedshiftOutput0005.cpu0000 CourantSafetyNumber = 0.300000 PPMFlatteningParameter = 0 PPMDiffusionParameter = 0 PPMSteepeningParameter = 0 NumberOfParticles = 20 ParticleFileName = ./RD0005/RedshiftOutput0005.cpu0000 GravityBoundaryType = 0 Pointer: Grid->NextGridThisLevel = 2
The final field, starting with “Pointer”, is slightly more complicated and will be discussed below.
Grid = 1
This is the ID of the grid. Enzo grids are indexed internally starting at 1.
Task = 3
This grid was written by processor 3 and will be read in by it if restarting more than 4 processors.
GridRank = 3
This is the dimensionality of the grid.
GridDimension = 38 22 22
Dimensions, including ghost zones.
GridStartIndex = 3 3 3
The first index of data values owned by this grid.
GridEndIndex = 34 18 18
The final index owned by this grid. The active zones have dimensionality of GridEndIndex - GridStartIndex + 1.
GridLeftEdge = 0 0 0
In code units, between DomainLeftEdge and DomainRightEdge, the origin of this grid.
GridRightEdge = 1 0.5 0.5
In code units, between DomainLeftEdge and DomainRightEdge, the right-edge of this grid. dx = (GridRightEdge - GridLeftEdge)/(GridEndIndex - GridStartIndex + 1).
Time = 646.75066015177
The current time to which the baryon values in this grid have been evolved.
SubgridsAreStatic = 0
Whether refinement can occur in the subgrids.
NumberOfBaryonFields = 8
The number of data fields associated with this grid.
FieldType = 0 1 4 5 6 19 20 21
The integer identifiers of each field, in order, inside this grid.
BaryonFileName = ./RD0005/RedshiftOutput0005.cpu0000
The HDF5 file in which the baryons fields are stored.
CourantSafetyNumber = 0.300000
Courant safety number for this grid (governs timestepping.)
PPMFlatteningParameter = 0
Flattening parameter for this grid (governs PPM hydro.)
PPMDiffusionParameter = 0
Diffusion parameter for this grid (governs PPM hydro.)
PPMSteepeningParameter = 0
Steepening parameter for this grid (governs PPM hydro.)
NumberOfParticles = 20
How many particles are located in this grid at this timestep.
ParticleFileName = ./RD0005/RedshiftOutput0005.cpu0000
The HDF5 file in which the baryon fields and particle data are stored. This field will not exist if there aren’t any particles in the grid.
GravityBoundaryType = 0
Boundary type inside gravity solver.
HDF5-formatted Hierarchy File¶
We are transitioning to an HDF5-formatted hierarchy file. This is an improvement because reading a large (many thousand grid) ASCII hierarchy file take a long time. [Other improvements?]
The structure of the file:
Although HDF5 tools like ‘h5ls’ and ‘h5dump’ can be used to explore the structure of the file, it’s probably easiest to use python and h5py. This is how to open an example hierarchy file (from run/Cosmology/Hydro/AMRCosmologySimulation) in python.
>>> import h5py >>> f = h5py.File('RD0007/RedshiftOutput0007.hierarchy.hdf5','r')
The root group (‘/’) contains a number of attributes.
>>> f.attrs.keys() ['Redshift', 'NumberOfProcessors', 'TotalNumberOfGrids'] >>> f.attrs['Redshift'] 0.0 >>> f.attrs['NumberOfProcessors'] 1 >>> f.attrs['TotalNumberOfGrids'] 44
So we see that this is a z=0 output from a simulation run on a single core and it contains a total of 44 grids.
Now let’s look at the groups contained in this file.
>>> f.keys() ['Level0', 'Level1', 'Level2', 'LevelLookupTable']
The simulation has two levels of refinement, so there are a total of three HDF5 groups that contain information about the grids at each level. Additionally, there is one more dataset (‘LevelLookupTable’) that is useful for finding which level a given grid belongs to. Let’s have a closer look.
>>> level_lookup = f['LevelLookupTable'] >>> level_lookup.shape (44,) >>> level_lookup[:] array([0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2])
This shows you that the first grid is on level 0, the second on level 1, and all the remaining grids on level 2. Let’s have a look at the ‘Level2’ group.
>>> g = f['Level2'] >>> g.keys() ['Grid00000003', 'Grid00000004', 'Grid00000005', ..., 'Grid00000043', 'Grid00000044']
Each level group also has one attribute, ‘NumberOfGrids’.
>>> g.attrs['NumberOfGrids'] 42
The hierarchy information about each of the grids is stored as both attributes and datasets.
>>> grid = g['Grid00000003'] >>> grid.attrs.keys() ['Task', 'GridRank', 'Time', 'OldTime', 'SubgridsAreStatic', 'NumberOfBaryonFields', 'FieldType', 'BaryonFileName', 'CourantSafetyNumber', 'PPMFlatteningParameter', 'PPMDiffusionParameter', 'PPMSteepeningParameter', 'ParticleFileName', 'GravityBoundaryType', 'NumberOfDaughterGrids', 'NextGridThisLevelID', 'NextGridNextLevelID'] >>> grid.keys() ['GridDimension', 'GridEndIndex', 'GridGlobalPosition', 'GridLeftEdge', 'GridRightEdge', 'GridStartIndex', 'NumberOfParticles']
Besides the parameters that have been described above, there are few new elements:
GridGlobalPosition is LeftGridEdge expressed in integer indices of this level, i.e. running from 0 to RootGridDimension * RefinementFactors**level - 1. This may be useful for re-calculating positions in long double precision (which is not universally supported by HDF5) at runtime.
NumberOfDaughterGrids gives you the number of daughter grids.
DaughterGrids is a group that contains HDF5-internal soft links to the daugher datasets. Example:
>>> daughters = grid['DaughterGrids'] >>> daughters.keys() ['DaughterGrid0000', 'DaughterGrid0001', 'DaughterGrid0002', ..., 'DaughterGrid0041'] >>> daughters.get('DaughterGrid0000', getlink=True) <SoftLink to "/Level2/Grid00000003">
In this case there are 42 daughter grids.
ParentGrids is a group that contains HDF5-internal soft links to parent grids on all levels above the present grid’s level. Example for a level 2 grid:
>>> grid = f['Level2']['Grid00000044'] >>> parents = grid['ParentGrids'] >>> parents.keys() ['ParentGrid_Level0', 'ParentGrid_Level1'] >>> parents.get('ParentGrid_Level0', getlink=True) <SoftLink to "/Level0/Grid00000001">
Lastly, there’s one additional (experimental) feature that is available only if you’ve compiled with verson 1.8+ of HDF5. In that case you can set ‘#define HAVE_HDF5_18’ in Grid_WriteHierarchyInformationHDF5.C [perhaps this should become a Makefile configuration option?], and then there will be an external HDF5 link to the HDF5 file containing the actual data for that grid. Example:
>>> grid.get('GridData', getlink=True) >>> <ExternalLink to "Grid00000002" in file "./RD0007/RedshiftOutput0007.cpu0000"
Controlling the Hierarchy File Output Format¶
There are two new parameters governing the format of the hierarchy format:
[OutputControl.]HierarchyFileInputFormat = 0, 1
This specifies the format of the hierarchy file to be read in: 0 = ASCII, 1 = HDF5. Default set to 0 for now, but will change to 1 in the future.
[OutputControl.]HierarchyFileOutputFormat = 0, 1, 2 [OutputControl.HierarchyFileOutputFormat in new-config]
This specifies the format of the hierarchy file to be written out: 0 = ASCII, 1 = HDF5, 2 = both. Default set to 2 for now, but will change to 1 in the future.